Biomimicry approaches to mitigate the urban heat island
Chowdhury, Mahmudul Islam (2020)
Chowdhury, Mahmudul Islam
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Mitigating Urban Heat Island Intensity (UHII) requires a comprehensive understanding of its relationship with global climate change, the underlying reasons, and adoption of all sorts of ideas from multidisciplinary fields. The biomimicry approach can be a remarkable option to this global concern, which has been emphasized by many scientists, researchers, and experts since the nineteenth century. However, it is yet to be acknowledged and widely practiced, especially in urban planning and design to safeguard a sustainable urban environment. The purpose of this study is to introduce a descriptive guideline on biomimetic urban design process, based on climate analysis at a neighbourhood scale. The study area, Paleficat of Toulouse in France, is a prospectus development area, a mixed-use area. Urban planners seek for a design that will cause the least environmental effect from the development. Both qualitative and quantitative study approaches are used in this study. Primary information is collected through field observation and secondary data is collected from The Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Solidarités, Sociétés, Territoires (LISST). The climatic analysis is done in the laboratory by using R-Language and QGIS for wind and temperature at city scale. Primary analysis done on vegetation, hydrological courses, building topology, building material, topography, UHII, heat stress, and wind has been carried out. Later, from both field study and literature review, this study stresses on formulating a guideline, which describes what component the neighbourhood should consider while designing the area such as: vegetation and hydrological courses, existing built structures, vehicular accessibility, heat stress and wind analysis, and height of the building. The guideline will enhance thermal comfort for the residents. Besides, the study has inferred that if the street network is built by following a naturally existing pattern like a leaf structure the area will cause minimum heat island in the future. Overall, identification of right biomimetic approach can help to reduce local heat stress. This approach gives the ability to creatively design an adaptive built environment that acknowledges that a city grows and evolves over time. Biomimicry helps planners to deal with the complexity of city planning in a multidisciplinary approach that aligns with the natural systems.