Barriers to Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence : Descriptive literature review
Field, Tuuli (2015)
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Adherence to the treatment regimen is essential to the success of highly active antiretrovi-ral therapy for patients who are infected with HIV. The evidence suggests that poor ad-herence to antiretroviral drug therapy is a major problem that has the potential to diminish effective viral suppression, promote viral resistance, and place patients at risk for hospital-ization, opportunistic infections, and an increased risk of HIV transmission. The primary aim of this study was review was to find and identify current barriers that prevent people from adherence to antiretroviral therapy. The chosen research method was descriptive literature review. Three databases were used for the literature search: CINAHL full text (EBSCO), ProQuest Hospital Collection and Medline (Ovid). Search was limited to arti-cles from years 2010-2015. Articles on children, pregnant women, intravenous drug users, psychiatric patients, post and pre-exposure prophylaxis patients were excluded from the study. After exclusion process 46 articles were accepted for the final analysis. The data was categorized by topics trying to make interpretations from the literature reviewed. Scheduling issues, stigma, adverse side effects and cost were the most commonly found adherence barriers. Scheduling issues and the adverse side effects seem to be universal barriers for patients all over the world. Stigma was more prominent barrier in articles con-ducted in African countries and cost was found to be a barrier in studies conducted in resource poor settings. High self-efficacy beliefs and social support were the most com-mon positive influences to adherence to ART that rose from the review. The need for new solutions and innovations rose from the results of this review to support patients in scheduling issues nad remembering to take pills in correct time. Furthermore further interventions that effectively target stigma are warranted. Consideration of how healthcare systems and policy can promote and support self-efficacy is required.