BURNOUT AMONG STAFF NURSES : Examining the causes, coping strategies and prevention
Ndawula, Maria (2016)
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Burnout occurs as a result of widening gap between the individual and demands of the job. Nursing is inevitably a demanding and stressful job in a complex organizational set-ting. Extra stressors like burnout have a severe impact on nurses’ well-being, patient safety, and the health organization as a whole. The main aim and objective of this study is to ex-amine the prevalence of burnout among staff nurses, explore the causes and what can be done to manage and prevent burnout among staff nurses. This study is a literature review of 14 articles. Two theoretical frameworks are used in this study which are the Job Demands-Resources Model and the Maslach theory on burnout. Results from this study indicate that burnout prevails among staff nurses working in different settings in different parts of the world. Occupational, organizational, psychographic and socio-demographic factors in that order contribute to burnout among staff nurses. Causes of burnout are not only limited to individuals but also management and organizational factors .Occupational factors such as shift work, workload, role clarity and ambiguity are shown to be the lead-ing cause of burnout among staff nurses. . Results from this study also indicate that burnout is a manageable condition which can also be prevented. Good management and leadership, development of nurse practice environment, stress reduction interventions, good lifestyle choices, emotional intelligence, emotion and problem focused coping strat-egies are linked to high job satisfaction, less stress and therefore reduce the likelihood of burnout among nurses. In recommendation, nursing institutions and colleges should include stress management education in the curriculum due to the inevitably stressful nature of the nursing profession. More research about psychographic and socio-demographic variables and their role in causing burnout is also highly recommended.