Collaborative Innovation with External Actors : An Empirical Study on Open Innovation Platforms in Smart Cities
Ojasalo, Jukka; Kauppinen, Heini (2016)
Talent First Network
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Despite the rapid increase of public–private–people partnership (PPPP) programs at the global scale, the scientific knowledge of collaborative innovation in cities is scarce. All smart city initiatives emphasize collaborative innovation for better services and products to address the needs and problems of modern cities. Indeed, there is an evident need for both scientific and practical knowledge in this area. Based on an extensive empirical study of open innovation platforms in smart cities, this article seeks to address this knowledge gap by increasing the knowledge of opportunities and challenges of collaborative innovation between a city and external actors, including companies, third sector organizations, research institutions, and citizens. The opportunities relate to novel services, products, and solutions, as well as economic gains, regional development, and systemic and process improvements. The challenges relate to city governments and external actors.