The Voice of Nurses: a Qualitative Study of the History of Nursing in Kazakhstan during 1960–1990
Duisebayeva, Guldana (2020)
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Background: Historical research in the field of nursing is a valuable approach in broadening the understanding of nursing discipline to determine its place in history and future direction. In 2014, with the approval of the acting Minister of Health of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the country adopted a "Comprehensive plan for the development of nursing in the Republic of Kazakhstan until 2020". By implementing this plan, the history of nursing and historical research can become one of the most important areas of nursing science in Kazakhstan. Aims: To describe the history of nursing in Kazakhstan in 1960–1990: what was nursing and nursing education like and the relationship between nurses and patients/their relatives in that era as described by nurses. Methods: A qualitative study was conducted, for which 10 nurses who worked in Kazakhstan in the period 1960–1990 were found to complete a survey using the snowball sampling method. The interviews were analyzed using content analysis. Results: The data revealed that nursing was a prestigious profession, and parents and their children were happy to choose it. Nursing was a socially significant specialty. In Kazakhstan, nurses in college were taught by doctors. However, during the study it was revealed that during the practical training, nurses were mentored by senior nurses who trained and showed them nursing care. The fact that nurses did not teach in college was because there was no higher education for nurses in the country, and therefore, nurses could not teach in college. Conclusion: The research led to the conclusion that Kazakh nurses wanted to continue their training. Among them were leaders and activists who were more than willing to try to improve nursing. The lack of provision of opportunities for nurses to continue their studies in higher education institutions led to a shortage of staff, a burden on nurses, and a delay in the development of nursing. Given that the history of nursing in Kazakhstan is little studied, the results of this study may serve as the beginning of further historical research of Kazakh nurses in more narrow areas.