The Effects of Work-Related Stress on Nurses’ Performance in Hospital Settings: A Literature Review
Kakshapati, Abina; Shrestha, Puja Pradhan; Shrestha, Pramila (2021)
Shrestha, Puja Pradhan
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Stress in nursing in hospitals is an important issue. Work-related stress in nursing occurs due to different work factors that place job demands on nurses. Stress experience has significant negative effect on nurses’ well-being, service delivery, and the organization as a whole. Stress is seen as negative factor affecting individual’s physical and mental health. However, stress is a normal part of every individual’s life and stress in optimal level is considered necessary to increase individual’s performance level. Whereas stress over a prolonged period requires sustained physical and mental effort to meet job demands. Nurses’ inability to handle job demands can lead to health problems in nurses and de-creases their productivity. The aim of this thesis is to study the sources of stress among nurses, study the adverse effects of stress on nurses’ performance, and study the stress coping strategies in dealing with stressful situations. This thesis is based on a literature review of 30 articles. The content analysis of this study is based on inductive qualitative content analysis. The Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model is used as a theoretical framework for this study. The findings from this study indicate that occupational, organizational, socio-demographic, and psychological factors are related to work stress in nursing. Work overload, role ambiguity, staff shortage, job insecurity, inadequate pay, inequality at work, exposure to death and disease, and lack of management support are associated with major sources of work stress in nursing. Prolonged work stress experience among nurses is linked to reduced job commitment, reduced productivity, poor patient outcomes, burnout, illness, absenteeism, and increase in negative personal behaviors such as aggression, anxiety, apathy, etc. It is important to identify job demands that are likely to cause stress among nurses and address those demands with relevant resources to sup-port nurses’ work environment. This could be achieved with job redesign, trainings, proper rewards, recognition, and organizational changes. Actions to reduce work stress are necessary to promote physical and mental well-being of nurses.